DINOSAUR DEPOSITS CONTAIN SALT FROM THE OCEAN
Owl Rock Member of the Chinle Formation consists of pinkish-orange mudstones (Note: Feldspar) mixed with hard, thin layers of limestone. Lenses of selenite gypsum are scattered periodically throughout the Owl Rock Member representing the minerals left behind after evaporation of inland lakes from marine salt water incursions.
This is typical Chinle Formation which often forms mounds of unconsolidated volcanic mixed water deposited sediment colored by iron and other volcanic minerals called montmoritllonite or bentonite. It contains a few body fossils unlike the crossbeded sandstone above it which contains only pristine trackways.
www.shroomery.org › ... › Mushroom Cultivation Dec 3, 2011 - 4 posts - 1 author. One of the by-product of salt is gypsum crystals, a marine evaporite. ... the formation of this crystal is from the evaporation of salt water.
The National Park Service published a paper CONTINENTAL TRACE FOSSILS, PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK: TOOLS FOR PALEOHYDROLOGIC AND PALEOECOSYSTEM RECONSTRUCTIONS Stephen T. Hasiotis Department of Geological Sciences University of
Colorado Campus Box 250 Boulder, CO 80309-0250 And Russell F. Dubiel U. S. Geological Survey Denver, CO 80225-0046
“These inland lakes were left behind when the oceans covered the land leaving behind mineral evaporates like gypsum, and salt.
“Continental trace fossils (Note: ichnofossils or tracks) from the Petrified Forest Member of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO), Arizona, were made by beetles, termites, soil arthropods, horseshoe crabs, and crayfish.”
“Horseshoe crabs (family Limulidae, order Xiphosura or Xiphosurida) are arthropods that live primarily in and around shallow ocean waters.”
When I was in the Petrified Forest I discovered a piece of gypsum, which I recognized because I had found a lot of it in Orange County Miocene fossil sites which were marine. This indicated to me the ocean had been here when these logs were deposited. Then I heard that a horseshoe crab fossil had been found in the Petrified Forest which confirmed my suspicions.
Here is interesting information that indicates the Petrified Forests are massive Flood deposits.
www.geo.mtu.edu/ This is from a research project from Michigan Technological University
“You measured and described one gypsum layer. There are five more gypsum layers within the Michigan Formation in this area.
These are salts. If a 1000' deep ocean in an arid area were to completely dry up, it would precipitate about 16' of evaporates.
It will precipitate gypsum when enough water has evaporated to reduce it to 1/3 its original volume. Sea water reduced to 1/10 its original volume will precipitate halite (Note: Salt crystals). If sea water evaporates completely, 83% of the precipitated evaporates will be halite (NaC1), 4% will be gypsum and the remainder will consist of other evaporates.”
USGS on line data tells us about the Mississippian ‘age’ Michigan Formation referred to above:
“Thicknesses of 91 to 122 m are more typical. Although generally composed of greenish gray and dark gray shale, this formation is lithologically variable and includes discontinuous beds of sandstone, limestone, dolostone, gypsum, and anhydrite. One of these carbonate beds, called the "Brown Lime," is a 3- to 6-m thick dolostone that can be traced in the subsurface across much of the basin.”
This evidence proves a lot of hot volcanic ocean water covered the land and evaporated leaving mineral salts behind.
“The Hutchinson Salt Member of the Permian Wellington Formation… Thickness of the salt reaches a maximum of 555 feet in northwestern Oklahoma.”
Returning to the Arizona Petrified Forest let’s look at the Post-Flood Bidahochi Formation found on top of the Flood deposited Chinle Formation described in the National Park Service brochure. This was deposited after the Flood in lakes left behind by the receding ocean water:
“During the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene Epochs of the Neogene Period (4-8 million years ago) a large lake basin with ephemeral lakes covered much of Northeastern Arizona. Fine-grained fluvial (flowing) and lacustrine (lake related) sediment such as silt, clay, and sand represent the lower part of the Bidahochi Formation. Volcanoes, both nearby and as far as the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic field, spewed ash and lava over the land and into the basin. Many of the volcanoes were phreatomagmatic, when ground or lake-water mingled with eruptive material (magma) to cause explosive eruptions.”This is an illustration of the huge lake left behind after the Flood of Noah which produced a Post-Flood layer on top of the Flood layer.
This is how that layer is found on top of the Flood boundary unconformaty in Arizona. There is 192 million years missing between these two layers. Do you see a lot of erosion? Where are the Grand Canyons?This is describing the Post-Flood volcanic upheavals on top of the Flood deposits. The deposits below are mostly rhyolitic and colorful, and those on top after the Flood are tan or grey basaltic ash.
Most of these petrified fossil sites are created by rhyolitic magmas at the beginning of the Flood upheaval, which have higher gas and water content than basaltic magmas which contain more iron and thus rhyolitic lava is more explosive since gas under pressure is kept as a liquid deep in the earth, then explodes into a gas as it nears the surface. The rainbow colors of most Flood created fossil sites and the most typical of this is the Morrison dinosaur Formation, indicate these were violent rhyolitic eruptions.
A rare rhyolitic volcanic caldera today is found at Lake Taupo, in the centre of New Zealand’s North Island. This huge volcano has produced two of the world’s most violent eruptions in geologically recent times. This supports the conclusion that eruptions just before and during the Flood were much more explosive than those today. Rhyolitic eruptions are common in the fossil record, but rare in Post-Flood historical times. I believe this is evidence that they were part of the fountains of the deep, when the earth had much more water stored inside it than it does today, and the lava came from shallower chambers beneath the surface.
Only three eruptions of rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century—the eruptions were at the St. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea, Novarupta Volcano in Alaska United States, and Chaiten in Southern Chile.
MISSING STRATA IN THE PETRIFIED FOREST
Between the Bidahochi Formation and the Chinle Formation there is 192 million years of missing strata, if evolution were true. However, the contact shows an unconformity contact that is rough showing it was a surface, but is almost level compared to canyons and rivers today. The large valleys like the Grand Canyon itself formed by erosion in this area were all formed more recently long after the Flood by huge amounts of moving water from huge lakes through breached damns, long after all the flat rock strata had been deposited during the Flood event. We see nothing like these canyons and valleys in the geologic record. So the present is not the key to the past, or does it show the 192 million years does not exist?
“Volcanic detritus in the Chinle Formation was derived from multiple, distinct sources. Coarse pebble- to cobble-size material may have originated in eastern California and/or western Arizona, where Triassic plutons are exposed. Fine-grained detritus, in contrast, was carried in ash clouds that derived from caldera eruptions in east-central California or western Nevada.”
This was a very large explosive volcanic eruption when water explodes into steam. Some of these volcanoes were probably in our Mojave Desert where there are lots of recent volcanoes and black basalt flows. They were caused by the movement of the continents away from the mid Atlantic Ridge during and for many ears after the Flood, the Bible’s description matches the Mid Atlantic Ridge as part of the fountains of the deep. Many of these volcanoes that erupted during the Flood started erupting after the Flood, in the Cenozoic into the Pleistocene about the time of Babel and Peleg approximately 2500 BC and caused mountain chains to rise again after being eroded as the Flood receded.This is one of the many basaltic Pleistocene volcanoes in the Mojave desert. There were mammoths and bison antiquis and Clovis people living here when they erupted during Peleg's division.
This is one of the volcanic craters formed by underground water explosions during Peleg's division and plate subduction around the ring of fire in the Pacific ocean. I hiked down to the bottom and found an artifact, a pistil used in mortars to grind seeds by natives. I thought that it might be a misidentified meteorite crater. But it served to prove objective science. I found no meteorites like at Odessa Texas and Meteor Crater Arizona. Only evidence of volcanic minerals and one out of place granite rock pestle.Now you might say maybe there were several eruptions over millions of years. Well then where are the unconformities containing canyons and river valleys between these layers? There are no unconformities in Chinle, much less canyons like we see in the present surface, except the minor one between the Bidahochi and the Chinle! In the Chinle there are only changes in color. The unconformity above the Chinle is because the Bidahochi is a Post-Flood formation, when breached dams of huge Pleistocene inland lakes caused flooding over about 100 to 1000 years after the Flood, forming the Post Flood Grand Canyon in strata formed during the Flood.
Lucchitta, 2001. Hiking Arizona's Geology, Hike 11, Coliseum Diatreme, pp. 116-119, p. 117 explains:
“The Pliocene to Late Neogene Bidahochi Formation, lies at an elevation of about 6,300 feet (1,920 m) to 6,600 feet (2,012 m) at the southeast of the Colorado Plateau; the deposits are from Bidahochi Lake, (also called Hopi Lake), and the deposits extend southwards to the region at the north perimeter of the White Mountains of central-east Arizona. Bidahochi Lake is thought to have been a single "large lake, or several shallow, and ephemeral ones."] Various fossil types are found; also bird trackways.”
This type of deposit is common for the Post Flood as the salty marine water receded; it left huge salty lakes, which lasted hundreds of years being kept full by huge torrential post Flood rains, which secular archaeologists call the pluvial period. Fossil leaves, fish, reptiles, freshwater shellfish, birds, bird tracks, and feathers are common in this type of limy shale. This deposit is similar to Orange County Miocene, and the Eocene Green River Formation in Wyoming, and one in Lebanon. I have found all of these to be incorrectly dated and are all part of the Post-Flood Period and could all be considered Pleistocene. In Florida the bones of Pleistocene camels, etc. are mixed with Miocene sharks, whales, and marine shellfish that are supposed to be millions of years older.
The Chinle appears to be one continuous event with only a little erosion, not 192 million years separating it from the Bidahochi.
PROOF GRAND CANYON IS RECENT
Even the Grand Canyon was formed during the recent Pleistocene according to secular geologists. Hopi Lake or Lake Bidahochi, mentioned above was the one that breached its damn and formed the Grand Canyon in weeks not millions of years as it cut its way to the Gulf of Mexico some time after the Flood. Of course the canyon has nothing to do with the age of the strata in the canyon, which evolutionists say started forming during the Pre-Cambrian, supposedly 2 billion years ago. Evidence of flat strata with no major erosion surfaces indicates it was one event, or events not far apart. Proof from secular geology that the formation of the canyon is a separate event is given below, and is not part of the ancient strata it cut through. It describes the breached damn which formed the canyon.
Price, L. Greer (1999). Geology of the Grand Canyon. Grand Canyon, Arizona: Grand Canyon Association. ISBN 0-938216-68-6 Page 58.
“From 5.5 million to 5 million years ago, headward erosion to the north and east consolidated these streams into one major river and associated tributary channels.” Then they started to down cut forming the canyon.
This is Lake Bidahochi. Of course there are some evolutionists who don't want to give up the millions of years for the formation of the Grand Canyon and claim this lake was only a shallow ephemeral lake. But they cannot deny that a large canyon like the Grand Canyon does not form by a little water over a long period of time. It would form a shallow ditch not a wide canyon.
Evolutionists always try to explain their way out of evidence against their theory; they claim it took a little water a long time to cut the canyon; however, when a breached damn happens it produces a canyon rapidly.
The deposit it made during the cutting of the canyon is found in the lower Colorado trough in the Gulf of Mexico which is called the Bouse Formation found in Arizona, California, and Nevada. Most of this deposit is in the Anza Borrego Desert. It contains Miocene/Pliocene freshwater mollusks, similar to Orange/Los Angeles County’s Miocene deposits.This deposit spilled over into the Los Angeles/Orange County basin.
This is the Pleistocene Bouse Formation produced by the run off of sediment from the Grand Canyon going from Wyoming to the Golf of Mexico after the Flood of Noah during the Pleistocene during the breached damn period. And it contains no dinosaurs or other Flood deposits, only Post-Flood Pleistocene mammals at the time of Peleg's Division.
Here is a map of Pleistocene mammal and marine deposits. The marine Imperial Formation is found in much of Southern California.
Here is a map of Pleistocene mammal and marine deposits. The marine Imperial Formation is found in much of Southern California.
When paleontologist Dr.Robert E. Reynolds of the San Bernardino County Museum led us on a field trip to the Bouse Formation in Nevada he took us to a small museum which had bones from a Pleistocene elephant on display from the Bouse Formation found in gravel. The biggest mystery he told us was, geologists were puzzled by the fact that most of the alluvium from the Grand Canyon was missing! The Bouse Formation was pitifully small and it did not contain dinosaurs.
Another mystery is how the river cut through the Colorado plateau which is higher ground. This is also true in other places like the Santa Ana River going from Riverside to Orange County in California cutting through the Santa Ana Mountains. Since we know that some mountains rose after the flood during Peleg's Division from geologic observation and evidence when the flood water left the dry land from the creation viewpoint, it appears that the runoff cut down through mountains and plateaus or blocks of rising land as they rose during and after the Flood. This may have taken hundreds of years of runoff, and included occasional flash floods from breached damns from lakes of trapped ocean water, and glacial melting through soft volcanic ash.
I have observed slickensides (rock cracking and sliding under pressure producing slick polished surfaces) in all forms of rock, which sometimes contain lava flows show the mountain forming orogeny upheavals were huge mega earthquakes, and not slow movements of rising mountains over millions of years. Also, rocks bend like plastic before they harden into solid rock, and this also happens when solid rocks are moved slowly, only rapid movement of solidified rock cracks them with slick surfaces. It is said that they are fault polished rock, but I have seen them in all rocks, not just near faults. Slickensides do not form slowly.
This is a picture of a slickenside where rock has slid over rock as mountains were upthrust after the Flood.
All over Riverside, California I have observed cracks in the granite that are filled with lighter colored rock that filled in the cracks. This light colored rock is quartz which hardens slower at lower temperatures than the surrounding granite. These intrusive quartz veins could not form slowly over millions of years or they would not remain hot enough to flow into the cracks and then they would form crystals. This is the same granite found in the mountain barriers in California. Evolutionists claim the granite is Jurassic, actually all granite is basement rock created during creation week, then it got upthrust during the Flood when the Mesozoic strata was deposited, and again after being eroded flat as the Flood receded, rose again after the Flood and during another catastrophic event or events.
During my research into the writing of the paper on the asphalt seeps at La Brea I discovered that the Miocene and Pleistocene sediment was upwarped along the Santa Monica Mountains as they rose. There are mountain barriers the length of California separating the higher deserts from the coastal plane.
HUGE FLOODS FROM DESERT LAKES INTO COSTAL CALIFORNIA
I have observed masses of loose sand, rocks, and boulders sorted all along
the mountain barriers called the Santa Ynez Mountains, the Tehachapi Mountains, the San Gabriel Mountains, the San Bernardino Mountains, the San Jacinto Mountains, and the Santa Rosa Mountains. The rocks are sorted from large to small determined by their distance and speed of the flowing water that deposited them. Many are huge boulders requiring huge amounts of rapidly moving water coming from the Mojave Desert that appears to have been a huge lake at one time.
MOST FOSSIL ANIMALS WERE BURIED ALIVE!
Some fossils like the Flood deposited Jurassic Berlin Archaeopteryx show they were alive when they fell into this bentonite (volcanic ash mixed with water altered sediment) mud which turned into shale similar to the Post-Flood California and Wyoming fossil fish beds, moving its wings, leaving movement smear lines in the feather impressions near the muscles in the shale.
In the Gobi desert Cretaceous strata, a small Veloceraptor dinosaur was found entangled with a Protoceratops dinosaur, actively fighting when they were buried alive.
The discovery of these dinosaur nests created the false myth that the Veloceraptor was an egg predator, thus, the name, “Egg Stealer.”
Paleontologists have made a lot of gross errors. But there is one thing that the evolutionists will swear too that can never be falsified – evolution is a fact of science! When facts conflict, with theory; they support the theory. The eggs turned out to be Veloceraptor!
Polygamy, Paternal Care In Birds Linked To Dinosaur Ancestors...
Polygamy, Paternal Care In Birds Linked To Dinosaur Ancestors...
Science Daily Dec 19, 2008 - Sure, they're polygamous, but male emus and
several other ground-dwelling birds also are devoted dads, serving as the sole incubators... Science News Dec. 19, 2008 gives us a fascinating look into the past in their article, from a paper, written by paleobiologist Gregory M. Erickson above of The Florida State University and other researchers writes,
"In those cases where adult dinosaurs have been found on top of nests, we found that the volume or mass of the egg clutch (total number of eggs in the nest) is very large relative to the size of the nesting animals."Notice the evolutionists are interested in their theory of polygamy, and ignore the more significant fact that these dinosaurs were buried alive sitting on the nest! This fact indicates that all dinosaurs worldwide were buried alive!!
These so called nesting sites are made up of common crossbeded red sandstone in Formations called: Navajo, Moenkopi, Coconino, etc. each of which covers thousands of square miles in areas that are found spotted around the world. This same crossbeded red sandstone commonly contains fossilized tracks, dated from the Permian to the Cretaceous and are falsely claimed to be wind blown sand deposits because they have ripples created by flowing water and they are cemented by volcanic silicon which could never happen in a desert sand.
Several ichthyosaur marine reptiles have been found fossilized in the act of giving birth. Dave Smith geologist working in artwork/design and paleontology for the University of California Berkeley Museum of Paleontology, writes in November 7, 2005,
“Rare fossils have been found that show ichthyosaurs actually giving birth to live, well-developed young; ichthyosaurs never had to leave the water to lay eggs. In fact, from their streamlined, fishlike bodies, it seems almost certain that ichthyosaurs could not leave the water. Yet they still breathed air and lacked gills, (they were) like modern whales.”
This is a mother Ichthyosaur giving birth while being suffocated by volcanic dust. You can see the Fallopian tube in which the baby is being born tail first unlike most reptiles which use eggs.
They are a form of reptilian porpoise. In fact they may have been warm blooded, this would explain how the Loch Ness plesiosaurs can survive in cold water.
Some of these ichthyosaur fossils have recently born babies swimming above the mother, indicating these marine reptiles were slowly suffocated by settling volcanic mud, probably from rock pulverized in explosive volcanic eruptions into fine grained sediment. One was even found giving birth, with the baby coming down the fallopian tube, tail first. The flesh of the fallopian tube and the skin around the ichthyosaur can be seen faintly as a stain in the shale!
X-ray examinations of Devonian slates has shown that soft parts of trilobites have been preserved in the shale, but are invisible to the naked eye!
Un-flattened three dimensional Ordovician Calymene trilobites are commonly found coiled like pill bugs, indicating burial alive while under stress. Trilobites in limestone are usually un-flattened in a living position, un-like the commonly flattened fossils in shale and slate.
This is a coiled Phacops Rena trilobite prepared for danger which is commonly found.
This is the same animal as it is found normally as a three dimensional fossil in limestone, unlike the flattened ones in shale.
Also, (I know this from personal observation of hundreds of thousands of trilobites) Cambrian trilobites in Utah and the Mojave Desert are usually only complete parts of exoskeletons. Heads (cephalons), main body (thorax), rear end (pygidium), or just their cheeks (genal lobes). And these are sometimes sorted by size. Some parts of the trilobites at Antelope Springs Utah, Marble Mountains in the Mojave Desert California, or from Canada are sorted so only heads or tails can be found in certain areas of the site. At Antelope Springs, Utah I also found different trilobite species were sorted into different areas. Elrathia kingi, and Asaphiscus are the most common at the main quarry area at this site. A mile away Peronopsis, Bathyuriscus are common. This shows sorting by moving water and fine mud.
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